Harnessing fetal and adult genetic reprograming for therapy of heart disease

Shyam Sundar Nandi, Paras Kumar Mishra

Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. Department of Anesthesiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA


Heart is the first organ formed during organogenesis. The fetal heart undergoes several structural and functional modifications to form the four-chambered mammalian heart. The adult heart shows different adaptations during compensatory and decompensatory heart failure. However, one common adaptation in the pathological heart is fetal reprogramming, where the adult heart expresses several genes and miRNAs which are active in the fetal stage. The fetal reprogramming in the failing heart raises several questions, such as whether the switch of adult to fetal genetic programming is an adaptive response to cope with adverse remodeling of the heart, does the expression of fetal genes protect the heart during compensatory and/or decompensatory heart failure, does repressing the fetal gene in the failing heart is protective to the heart? To answer these questions, we need to understand the expression of genes and miRNAs that are reprogrammed in the failing heart. In view of this, we provided an overview of differentially expressed genes and miRNAs, and their regulation in this review. Further, we elaborated novel strategies for a plausible future therapy of cardiovascular diseases. Journal of Nature and Science, 1(4):e71, 2015

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