Current Animal Models of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Barrett’s Esophagus, and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

Takahiro Masuda, Sumeet K. Mittal

Norton Thoracic Institute, St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Creighton University School of Medicine, Phoenix Regional Campus, Phoenix, Arizona, USA

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The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is rapidly increasing in the United States and is becoming a serious problem. This disease is known to develop through a metaplasia–dysplasia–carcinoma sequence. Gastroesopha-geal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common risk factor in the progression of inflammation–Barrett’s Esophagus (BE)–EAC. Although an individual’s risk of progression is quite low, the near-pandemic prevalence of GERD makes it an important health concern. Unfortunately, by the time patients with EAC are symptomatic, they are generally in a later stage of the disease, which increases the likelihood of a poor prognosis. Thus, early clinical diagnosis is critically important. To improve management of patients with EAC, the molecular pathophysiology of the disease must be elucidated. Animal models have potential to provide answers, and the primary animals for experimental models of GERD, BE, and EAC have been rats and mice. Various surgical reflux models and genetic models have been reported. Herein we review the development of animal models of GERD, BE, and EAC in rats and mice. We also describe several limitations associated with current animal models.

Journal of Nature and Science (JNSCI), 3(6):e387, 2017

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